Please read Dr. Cristea’s article in Nucleic Acids Research titled, “IFI16 phase separation via multi-phosphorylation drives innate immune signaling.”
Throughout evolution, mammalian cells have developed a complex intrinsic and innate immune system for defense against pathogens by using pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to detect pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). During viral infection, the nucleic acid that comprises the viral genome is a prototypic PAMP that can be recognized by host PRR sensors of viral DNA or RNA. Upon detection and direct binding, these sensors initiate rapid and extensive signaling cascades that can promote the expression of type I interferons (IFN), pro-inflammatory cytokines, and interferon-stimulated genes. The functions of these signaling molecules during an infection span a broad range of immune responses, which culminate in the intra- and inter-cellular restriction of virus replication and spread. To exert such functions, a paradigm has emerged supporting the universal formation of higher-order PRR assemblies and supramolecular complexes of nanometer to micrometer scales for innate immune signal amplification. To read the full article.
IFI16 phase separation via multi-phosphorylation drives innate immune signaling. Liu D, Lum KK, Treen N, Nύñez CT, Yang J, Howard TR, Levine M, Cristea IM. Nucleic Acids Research (2023). doi: 10.1093/nar/gkad449 PMID: 37283074. PMID: 37283074 PMCID: PMC10359621 DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkad449